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مُساهمةموضوع: الأزمنة   الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2007 1:56 am

The Present Simpleالحاضر البسيط



Form: Subject+Verb+Complement


A-Habitual action: أفعال اعتيادية

- I usually wash my face

B- Stable facts : حقائق ثابتة

- The water consists of Hydrogen and Oxygen
ولا ننسى إضافة حرفS للفعل في حالة وجود الضمائر He-She-Itفقط .
مثال1: She under stands English -


-she doesn't :under stand English :للنفي
مثال2: -He goes to school ever morning
للسؤال:does he go to school every morning-


-Do you live in Paris? مثال3:
NOTE:
فيما سبق نشاهد عملية حذف حرف Sمن الفعل عند استخدام فعل مساعد مثل: Doesn't-Didn't)OR(Do-Does-Did)-(Don't
الظروف الاعتيادية:
(Every day-Every week-Every month-Every year-Every summer-Every winter).
دائما-Always: عادةUsually:- غالبا: Often


أبدا - never: بعض الأوقات أو أحياناSome times:
مواقع الظروف:The position of the adverb:


1-Every(beginning---end).

2-Before the verb.

3-After the(verb to be+ verb to have). أمثلة:

A-Every day I go to school

B-I watch TV every evening

C-He some times plays basket ballقبل الفعل
D-She is never late بعد فعل الكون
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مُساهمةموضوع: Continous presentالحاضر المستمر   الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2007 1:57 am

Continous presentالحاضر المستمر

Form:
Subject+verb to be+verb-ing+complement
She is talking on the phone

Uses:


A-To describe an action that is going on at this moment . لتصف الحدث الذي يجري في هذه اللحظة.

-You are studying English grammar.
B-To describe an action that is going on during this period of timeلتصف الحدث الذي يجري في هذه الفترة من الزمن.


-Are you still working for the same company.

C-To describe an action in the futureلتصف حدث في المستقبل -I am meeting my friend tomorrow.

D-To describe a temporary action لتصف حدث مؤقت.

-I am living with my grand mother
- وليست حاضرمستمربل بسيط.Ilive with my grand mother. .(Permament action)حدث دائم


Note:

Verbs that are not normally used in the continuous form:

1-Senses حواس: - Perceptionإدراك:

Feelيشعر: - Hearيسمع: - Seeيرى: - Smell:يبدو - Tasteيتذوق: .

2-Opinion:رأي
Believeيعتقد - يصدق - يؤمن: - Considerيعتبر: - Doubt:يشك - Thinkيشعر: - Suppose يفترض:


3-Mental statesحالات فكرية:

Forgetينسى: - rememberيتذكر: - Under stand:يفهم - Know:يعرف - Notice:يلاحظ -

Mean:يقصد- يعني .




4-Emotions:عواطف
Like- يحب- يشبه: Loveيحب: - Preferيفضل: - Want:يريد - Hate:يكره - Hope:يأمل – Wishيتمنى: .


5- Measurement:القياس

Contain:يحتوي - Cost:يبلغ - Measure:يقيس - Weigh:يزن - Include:يتضمن .

NOTE:

This verb may be used in the continuous form but with a different meaning .

Compare: قارن

1-She has three dogs and a cat . )Possession:ملكية)

2-She is having supper. (Eating)

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مُساهمةموضوع: Present perfectالحاضر التام   الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2007 1:59 am

Present perfectالحاضر التام



Form:
Subject+have or has+past partyciple+complemenet



(Regular)

visit visited visited

Go Went Gone (Irregular)

Write Wrote Written

Buy Bought Bought

Find Found Found

Use:

The present perfect is used to indicate a line between the present and the past the time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested

in the result than in the action it self .

1-An action that started in the Past and countinues in the present .

- I have lived in Syria since 1984 . (and I still do).

2-A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now .

-She has visited Damascus three times .

3-An action that was completed in the very resent past .

-I have just finished my work .

4-An action when the time is not important .

-He has read war and peace .

5-An action performed during a period that has not yet finished .

-She has been to cinema twice this week .








Adverbs:
Yetحتى الآن: - Just:الآن - Since:منذ - For:لمدة - Already:مسبقا - Ever:دائما - Never:أبدا .


Note -1- :

For *A period of time* (الوقت من فترة)

For six years .

For a week .

For a month .

For hours .

For to days .

Note -2- :

Since *A point of time* (الوقت من نقطة)

Since this morning .

Since last week .

Since Wednesday .

Since 20'clock .

Since 1990 .

Since I was child .

Since March 2nd .

Compare:

1-I have lived with my family since two years .

2-I lived with my family in 1990 .

*In the first sentence, it is a present perfect ,the time is not important, He has still lived with his family .

*In second sentence, it is a simple past, the action happened in the past and ended in the past, the time is important but he didn't live with his family now .


indicate: يشير-interested:اهتماما -moreأكثر: - result:النتيجة - self:نفسه - unspecified:غير محدد - period:فترة - resent:الحديث - performed:أنجز
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مُساهمةموضوع: الحاضر التام المستمر   الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2007 2:00 am

Continous presentالحاضر المستمر

Form:
Subject+verb to be+verb-ing+complement
She is talking on the phone

Uses:


A-To describe an action that is going on at this moment . لتصف الحدث الذي يجري في هذه اللحظة.

-You are studying English grammar.
B-To describe an action that is going on during this period of timeلتصف الحدث الذي يجري في هذه الفترة من الزمن.


-Are you still working for the same company.

C-To describe an action in the futureلتصف حدث في المستقبل -I am meeting my friend tomorrow.

D-To describe a temporary action لتصف حدث مؤقت.

-I am living with my grand mother
- وليست حاضرمستمربل بسيط.Ilive with my grand mother. .(Permament action)حدث دائم


Note:

Verbs that are not normally used in the continuous form:

1-Senses حواس: - Perceptionإدراك:

Feelيشعر: - Hearيسمع: - Seeيرى: - Smell:يبدو - Tasteيتذوق: .

2-Opinion:رأي
Believeيعتقد - يصدق - يؤمن: - Considerيعتبر: - Doubt:يشك - Thinkيشعر: - Suppose يفترض:


3-Mental statesحالات فكرية:

Forgetينسى: - rememberيتذكر: - Under stand:يفهم - Know:يعرف - Notice:يلاحظ -

Mean:يقصد- يعني .




4-Emotions:عواطف
Like- يحب- يشبه: Loveيحب: - Preferيفضل: - Want:يريد - Hate:يكره - Hope:يأمل – Wishيتمنى: .


5- Measurement:القياس

Contain:يحتوي - Cost:يبلغ - Measure:يقيس - Weigh:يزن - Include:يتضمن .

NOTE:

This verb may be used in the continuous form but with a different meaning .

Compare: قارن

1-She has three dogs and a cat . )Possession:ملكية)

2-She is having supper. (Eating)

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مُساهمةموضوع: Simple past:الماضي البسيط   الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2007 2:01 am

Simple past:الماضي البسيط
Form:
Subject+Verb-ed+ للأفعال النظامية فقط Complement
(وهنا نضيفED لآخر الأفعال ما عدا الأفعال الشاذة)

أفعال نظامية: 1-Regular verbs:
Wash Washed
Look Looked
Talk Talked
Walk Walked
Arrive Arrived
Sail Sailed
Play Played
Live Lived
Cross Crossed
Cry Cried

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
أفعال شاذة: 2-IRegular verbs:
Am Was
IS Was
Are Were
Have Had
Has Had
Do Did
Does Did
Go Went
Buy Bought
Send Sent
See Saw
Give Gave
Think Thought
Sell Sold
Come Came
Find Found
Eat Ate
Drink Drank
Write Wrote
Cut Cut
Put Put
Read Read

-1- أمثلة:


* I was a child

Negative: I was not a child

Question: Were you a child?
-2-
* She lived in Syria two years ago
Negative: She didn't live in Syria two years ago
Question: Did she live in Syria two years ago?







*He went to bed early last night.
Negative: He didn't go to bed last night

Question: Did he go to bed last night?
Uses:
The simple past is used is to talk a bout a completed action
in a time before now .
Adverbs:
Yesterday- ago- Last week-Last month
- Last summer- Last autumn- Along time ago.
Note:


I saw friend before tow years وهذه الجملة خاطئة إذ أنه لا يجوز استخدام Before قبل Tow years وإنما نستخدم Ago بعدها كالتالي:
I saw friend tow years ago.


ويجوز استخدام Before كالتالي:
I wash my hands before I eat my breakfast .
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مُساهمةموضوع: Past continuousالماضي المستمر   الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2007 2:03 am

Past continuousالماضي المستمر
Form:
Subject+was or were+main verb-ing
فعل أساسي


Adverbs:

While:بينما

As :بينما

Note:

If we have two sentences in the past one them is used in the continuous past the other must be used in the simple past.

Examples:

A-They were waiting for the bus when the accident happened.

B-Caroline was skiing when she broke her leg .

C-When the fire started i was watching TV.

D-When we arrived he was having a both .

Note:

We can use two sentences in the continuous past if they are in the same place and the same time .


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مُساهمةموضوع: Past perfectالماضي التام   الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2007 2:04 am

Past perfectالماضي التام
Form:
Subjest+had+pastpartyciple+complemenet
I had plyed basketball


Uses:

The past perfect expresses an activity which happened in the past before another activity in the past .

Examples:

-I had eaten my breakfast before i went to school .

-I felt a little after i had taken a medicine .

Note:
إن حدث الماضي التام يحدث قبل وقوع الماضي البسيط أي إنهم لا يجتمعان لكن كلاهما يحدث في الماضي .


Compare:

1-When we arrived ,the others all left . ماضي بسيط

2-When we arrived ,the others had all left .ماضي تام

Comment:تعليق

1-We arrived and them they left that means we saw them .

2-They left before we arrived that means we didn't see them.

Adverbs:
When:عندما - Before:قبل - After:بعد - Until yester day:حتى البارحة
By the time:


Affirmative: She had left the theatre .

Negative : She hadn't left the theatre .

Question :Had she left the theatre .


Expressesيعبر: - Activityنشاط: - medicineدواء: - theatreمسرح:

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مُساهمةموضوع: Past perfect progressive(continuous)الماضي التام المستمر   الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2007 2:05 am

Past perfect progressive(continuous)الماضي التام المستمر

Form:
Subject+had+been+verb-ing


He said: It had been walking for thirty minutes .

Use:

- The past perfect continuous corres ponds to the present perfect continuous but with reference to a time earlier than before now .



-had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived?



-We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when he found his key .



-It had been raining hard for several hours, and the streets were wet .
***********************


He had been doing his homework for five hours before we came in .
corres ponds :ينسجم - reference:الإشارة - trying:نحاول - several:عديدة









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مُساهمةموضوع: Future simple المستقبل البسيط   الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2007 2:06 am

Future simple المستقبل البسيط


Form:
Subject+will or be going to + verb(infinitive)+ complement


I will se you

Uses of will:

1-We use will for an instant decision .

-I will shut the window .

2-We use will with:



I'm sureمتأكد : - I'm think أظن : - I'm expectأتوقع:



A-I expect we will lose the match .

B-I think he will pass the exam .

C-I'm sure that we will cross the borders .



Noties: The present simple after :
When- Before- As soon as-Until .


-We will go to the park as soon as he comes .

الجملة الأساسية الجملة الثانوية



ملاحظة:لا نستخدمWill مع :الجملة الثانوية .
-Present simple for a time table or calendar .
-The train arrives at seven O'clock . جملة صحيحة


-The train will arrives at seven O'clock جملة خاطئة
-Present continuous for personal arrangements .
-I am having lunch with my friend .
-I am meeting the director tomorrow .
-We're plying tennis this after noon .









Uses of be going to:

1-We use "be going to" for an intention which we have already decided .

A-We are going to go to the beach next week .

B-I'm going to visit my uncle next month .

C-They are going to sail round the world .

2-We use" be going to" for a prediction on the present situation .

A-there Isn't a cloud in the sky it's going to be a lovely day .

B-There is a car be careful we are going to crash .


instant:ثابت - decisionقرار: - loseنخسر: - pass:يجتاز - cross:يعبر - borders:الحدود time table:جدول مواعيد – calendar:رزنامة arrangements:ترتيبات أو تنظيمات - intention:نية أو غاية - decided:قررت
- sail يبحر: -- roundحول: - predictionتنبؤ: -situationموقف: - cloudغيم:
carefulحذر: - crash نتحطم:







Future continuousالمستقبل المستمر


Form:
Subject + will be + verb_ing+ complement
المستقبل المستمر يعبر عن النشاط الذي سيكون فيه استمرارية قبل وبعد وقت ما في المستقبل .


Don’t call me at seven O'clock , I will be having my dinner .

This time tomorrow , I will be flying to New York

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الأزمنة   الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2007 2:12 am

-Compare-
الحاضر البسيط
Subject+Verb+Complement
Every day, I wait for my school bus .
الحاضرالمستمر
Subject+verb to be+verb-ing+complement
Now, I am waiting for my friend
الماضي البسيط
Subject+Verb-ed+Complement
I waited for my friend ten minutes yesterday
الماضي المستمر
Subject+was or were+main verb-ing+complement
I was waiting for my family, when I was at the airport
الحاضر التام


Subject+have or has+past partyciple+cpmplement
I have waited for my brother three times in this week
الماضي التام
Subjest+had+pastpartyciple+complemenet
I had waited for my boss before he came
الحاضر التام المستمر
Subject+have or has+been+verb-ing+complement
I have been waiting for my pen friends letter since Saturday
الماضي التام المستمر
Subject+had+been+verv-ing+complement
He sad: He had been waiting for two hors before we started the meeting
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